The Comparative Study of the Shahnama lithographic Images, 1846 AD in India and 1851-53 AD in Iran

Document Type: Research Article

Author

Secretary of Technical and Vocational in Ramsar (Ministry of Education) Ramsar, Iran

Abstract

After industrial and artistic changes in Qajer era lithography as a part of this change appeared. Its physical changes as compared with the traditional ones which was originated from its technical limitation commenced with the color deletion and continued with an emphasis on visual elements. Some artists who were familiar with these techniques developed this new method in a short time. They have accomplished valuable results by scrutinizing the works of other artists and application of no-Iranian experiences and its purification with Iranian traditional book illustration techniques. The arrival of press industry from India to Iran resulted in getting influences from Indian works.
India which had become familiar with this industry before Iran and had lots of cultural and literary commonalities with Iran published the first lithographic Shahnamah by the order of an Iranian publisher. By entering this books into Iran some illustrators used it, to create their own works. One of these artists is Mirza Aliqoli Khoee, the greatest Iranian illustrators. He illustrated the first lithography Shahnamah in Iran, from 1849 to 1851. It has been affected by the first lithography Shahnamah of India in 1846. The composition of the pictures, the place of the elements and the figures and illustration of the common events are the effects of its Indian counterpart.
Therefore by supposing that Iranian illustration has developed under the influence its Indian counterpart the present study is seeking to find if there are any similarities and difference between the pictures of the first Iranian lithography Shahnamah 1851 and Indian lithography Shahnamah 1846 and if yes, what they are. To find the answer the first Iranian lithography Shahnamah 1851 and Indian lithography Shahnamah 1846, lithography in Qajer era, its changes and its development have been studied. The study has been done descriptively and analytically. To do the comparison and analysis five pictures have been selected from each one. Other pictures are cited in the appendixes. The research method in historical issues is a descriptive-analytical study. The data and the pictures have been collected through library study.

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