The Study of the Traditional Arts and Handicrafts of the Ghaznavid Era Through the Historical Books

Document Type: Research Article


Assistant Professor, Faculty of Humanities , Hormozgan University, Bandar Abass, Iran


Time and historical events have had devastating impacts on the erasure and oblivion of the ‘art works’ in different periods. Notwithstanding, recognition and revaluation of these art works necessitate the study of the historical written accounts. Historical books provide a complete picture of the customs in royal courts, governments, political and social affairs, gift giving ceremonies , the life of people from all walks of life and etc. though which different aspects of culture, traditional arts, and handicrafts can be explored. So the research aims in this research is studying the traditional arts and handicrafts of the Ghaznavid Era through the historical books remained from this period. The primary sources for this essay consist of Tarikhe Yamini authored by Mohammad Bin Atabi Including historical events from the late Samanids until the time of Sultan Mahmud, the momentary description of Mahmoud's battles in India, various social and religious issues of the 4th and 5th centuries AH. Zein-Al-Akhbar, authored by Abdolhay Gardizi:  General history of Iran from the past to Mawdud of Ghazni time. Complete History of Ghaznavids: mentioning the exact time and date, as well as with rituals and traditions of the Royal court and different classes of people and contains information on the Samanid, Safarian, Taherian and Seljuk governments and History of Bayhaq, authored by Abolhassan Bayhaqi, well-known as Ibn Fandagh, containing comprehensive information on cities of Khorasan and reputed figures of Ghaznavid and Ghorian eras. Tarikhe Bayhaqi is the most completed between sourses because of describing details in Ghaznavid Eda. The main purpose in this essay is introducing of handicrafts in this era not the place of made them.  The methods used in this essay are library research, the descriptive and historical analysis.


1. Amiri, David(2008), Natural dyeing and pigment extraction from sperica.Tehran: Shabahang, Iran, In Farsi.

2. Anvari, Hassan(1993), The terms of the Ghaznavid and Seljuk periods. Tehran: Tahiri, Iran, In Farsi.

3. Atabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad b. Abdul Jabbar, 1996, Yemini History. Translated by Abu'l-Zarf Naseh Jalfadqani, edited by Jafar Shahar, Tehran: Scientific and cultural, Iran, In Farsi.

4.  Baker, Patricia(2007), Islamic textiles. translated by Mahnaz Shayestefar, Tehran: Institute of Islamic Art Studies Press, Iran, In Farsi.

5.Bayani ,Susan(1984), The Importance of Parades and Events in Iran and Its Role in Islamic Civilization. Tehran: faculty of humanity, Tehran University Press, No. 101 to 104, Iran, In Farsi.

6. Bayhaqi ,Abolfazl Mohammad bin Hossein(2014), History of Baygahi. Edited by Khalil Khatib Rahbar, Tehran: Mahtab, Iran, In Farsi.

7.Brand, Barbara(2005),Islamic Art.  translated by Mahnaz Shayestefar, Tehran: Institute of Islamic Art Studies Press, Iran, In Farsi. 

8.Conel , Ernest(2009), Islamic art. Translated by Houshang Taheri, Tehran: Toos, Iran, In Farsi.

9.Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar(1995), Dictionary / Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, Tehran University press, Iran, In Farsi.

10.Foruzani ,Abolqasem(2006),Ghaznavids: From genesis to collapse. Tehran: Samt, Iran, In Farsi.

11.Gardizi, Abu Sa'id Abdulahi bin Zahak bin Mahmoud(1985),Zein-Al-Akhbar. Edited by Abdolahi Habibi, Tehran: world of books, Iran, In Farsi.

12.Ibn Fandagh, Abolhassan Bayhaqi(1939), History of Bayhaq. Tehran, Iran, In Farsi.

13.Khazaee, Mohammad, Mousavi Hejazi, Bahar(2013), Language and Expression in Iranian Metalwork, Islamic period to Mongol invasion. The Monthly Art Monthly, No.165, Iran, In Farsi.

14.Mili Heravi, Najib(1994), Writing in Islamic Civilization. Mashhad: University Press, Iran, In Farsi.

15.Rahgani, Rohanghiz(1999), the History of Iranian Music. Tehran: Pishru, Iran, In Farsi.

16.Ramezankhani , Sedigheh(2008),Textile Art in Yazd. Tehran: Sobhan Noor, Iran, In Farsi.

17.Roohfar , Zohreh(2006), the History of Fabric texture in Iran. Tehran: University press, Iran, In Farsi.

18.Woolf , Hans(2006),Ancient arts of Iran.Translated by Sirus Ebrahimzadeh, Tehran: Scientific and cultural, Iran, In Farsi.

19.Ward, Rachel(2006),Islamic Metalwork. Translated by M.Shayestehfar, Tehran: Institute of Islamic Art Studies Press, Iran, In Farsi. 

20.Yarshater, Ehsan(2006),History and art of weaving carpets in Iran (based on Iranica Encyclopedia). Translated by Lali Khamseh, Tehran: Niloofar, Iran, In Farsi.