Study of technology of stucco decoration during the Saljoughi period in Zanjan province (last resting-place of Pir Ahmad Zahrnoosh, Ghorveh chatholic mosque, sojas catholic mosque)

Document Type: Research Article

Author

Assistance professor.Cultural Heritage & Tourism Organization Research center,Iran

Abstract

In ancient India and China, renders in clay and gypsum plasters were used to produce a smooth surface over rough stone or mud brick walls, while in early Egyptian tombs, walls were coated with lime and gypsum plaster and the finished surface was often painted or decorated. Modelled stucco was employed throughout the Roman Empire. The Romans used mixtures of lime and sand to build up preparatory layers over which finer applications of gypsum, lime, sand and marble dust were made; pozzolanic materials were sometimes added to produce a more rapid set. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the addition of marble dust to plaster to allow the production of fine detail and a hard, smooth finish in hand-modeled and molded decoration was not used until the Renaissance. Around the 4th century BC, the Romans discovered the principles of the hydraulic set of lime, which by the addition of highly reactive forms of silica and alumina, such as volcanic earths, could solidify rapidly even under water. There was little use of hydraulic mortar after the Roman period until the 18th century. (Poop, Arto,  1986,38)
Plaster-molding industry of Saljoughi period enjoyed prominent atrial aspects due to changes of architectural-related arts which may be considered as determinative indicator of different plaster-molding methods & procedures regarding to former & next periods. This stucco decoration is result of interaction of various variables. This paper aims to determine these unsolved variables using laboratory methods (XRF, XRD) such as study of materials. This paper main subject is determination of exact criteria of stucco decoration art during the Saljoughi period.   Zanjan is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, and played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers. Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture,  literature, language art and architecture.
 

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