The Analysis of Hidden Geometric of Persian Painting, Case Study: One Piece Miniature of Kamal Aldin Bihzad

Document Type: Research Article


Faculty of Arts of Religions & Civilization, Art University of Isfahan, Iran


Hidden geometry is a set of geometric coordinates based on which the artist composes the artwork, and its object is to compile a homogenous unit that conveys artistic expression. This geometry and its rational scales is named “hidden geometry” after its invisibility in the work and also named “fundamental geometry” because the work is founded in accordance with that. In studying the hidden geometry, in fact, the geometric principles are investigated based on which the artist composed the artwork. This study investigates the hidden geometry of an artworks, a miniature of Timurid Zafarnameh which is preserved in Gulistan Palace Museum (a celebration after Timur’s return to Samarqand) and composed by an Iranian Miniaturist, Master Kamal al-Din Bihzad, by considering the accurate principles of scales, geometric schema, forms and harmony in the work segments, and tries to answer the following questions: how is the hidden geometry procedure of composing in miniature of Bihzad, and if it is possible to characterize the scales and harmony between the work’s geometric infrastructure and theme by using geometric analysis. Thus it is important to characterize the geometric infrastructure of Bihzad’s work which this paper tries to study. On the other hand studying the hidden geometry in works of Iran’s miniature masters is helpful for today’s miniature creating. The works' formative analysis is an operation that focuses on ostensible structure and its specifications. Here the geometric analysis of figure or form will be considered as functional investigation of conventions that merely depict the ostensible aspects of a work; hence the geometric fundamental theories will be taken in consideration for characterizing the scales and hidden geometry of Bihzad’s work. Consequently, by using the geometric coordination and rational scales, it is revealed that, for creating supreme artworks,  Bihzad has used some scales based on irrational-numbers and Golden ratio (φ), in addition to circle and quadrangle based spirals; it demonstrate evolutional procedure of composition in Persian Painting and reaching the soar of compilation in miniature infrastructure through him.



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